The novel architectures and associated structure-dependent properties and activities of nanomaterials make them extremely useful as analytical tools in medical diagnostics and therapeutics, including those targeting cancers, COVID-19, and other devastating diseases. Nanoscale probes or agents are often advantageous in terms of delivery, targeting, and potency compared to traditional probes or agents. As such, nanotechnology tools have significantly impacted gene regulation, immunotherapy, drug screening, tissue engineering, cellular analysis and manipulation, and a variety of other areas. Nanomaterials can also be used to uncover new insights into biological mechanisms and nano-bio interactions, and such enhanced understanding at the fundamental level is essential to developing next-generation nanoanalytical tools that will rapidly move from the bench to the clinic. This symposium will highlight numerous examples of nanoscale analytical tools that are transforming biology and medicine. In the spirit of Pittcon, this symposium will strive to advance scientific endeavors through bringing diverse researchers from a variety of subject areas together.