RNA is of growing importance as a target and a tool, evidenced by the SARS-CoV2 virus, the mRNA vaccines, and genome editing by CRISPR. One of the reasons RNA has these functions is that it can adopt diverse three dimensional folds, much like proteins. It has long been thought that RNA is limited in its function because it has only four similar neutral side chains. However, recent studies suggest that the RNA bases can adopt charged and tautomeric states and that these play roles in folding, small molecule binding, and catalysis. This symposium will look at this surprising aspect of RNA chemistry and ways to sense it. Speakers will describe genomic, biochemical, synthetic, spectroscopic, and theoretical approaches into this topic.